While Sir Arthur Conan Doyle traveled to Australia later in his life, his visit had nothing to do with Sherlock Holmes. In 1920 and 1921, Doyle was touring Australia to give a series of lectures on spiritualism.
Now the question has been answered. Sherlock Holmes: The Australian Casebook chronicles Holmes’ and Watson’s adventures in Australia over several months in 1890. The book, edited by Christopher Sequeira, contains sixteen short stories by Australian writers. Those writers include Kerry Greenwood, author of the Phryne Fisher mystery series, and Kaaron Warren, a horror and science fiction writer who authored Walking the Tree and award-winning The Grief Hole.
Holmes and Watson have adventures in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, and Hobart, as well as in some more remote locations. The stories take place across all eight states and territories of modern Australia.
Although Canberra didn’t yet exist in 1890, Holmes and Watson do solve a mystery in the proximity of what will become Australia’s capital city. In the “Adventure of the Lazarus Child” by Dr. L.J.M. Owen, they travel to Queanbeyan Station, identified as a “remote mill-and-mine town in New South Wales as far distant from Sydney as York is from London.”